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Eating Disorders



Eating Disorders

Eating disorders have always been the elephant in the room and while this psychological illness often goes ignored by both the sufferer and others, eating disorders have life-threatening consequences if left untreated

Eating disorders are known as abnormal eating habits exhibited by patients who eat more or less than three meals a day. If left untreated, eating disorders can lead to life-threatening illnesses, and according to an article published in the International Journal of Eating Disorders, 13 percent of women below the age of 50 have developed eating disorders while on a diet. According to the article’s findings, 67 percent of women between the ages of 25 and 45 are preoccupied with thoughts of losing weight.

On the other hand, according to data from the Healthcare Research and Quality Agency, from 1999 to 2009 there was an 88 percent increase in the number of hospitalizations in eating disorder patients between the ages of 45 and 65.

Eating disorders are directly related with anxiety and the fear of gaining weight. The disease is classified under three categories including Anorexia nervosa, Bulimia nervosa and atypical eating disorders (uncontrolled eating or binge-eating disorder).

Anorexia nervosa

Seen especially among young women and adolescents, anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that stems from psychological disordered thinking about the need to lose weight, resulting in starvation, insomnia and overactive compulsive behavior. Anorexics generally limit their daily caloric intake and the types of nutrients they consume to an extreme. Anorexia can affect people of all ages and sociocultural backgrounds and is not limited to women. Historians and psychologists have compiled proof that anorexia has been around for hundreds of years. People of non-Westernized regions of the world, such as China and Africa, were also diagnosed with anorexia in the same studies.

Anorexia diagnoses are not limited to extremely underweight or obese patients. To the contrary, it has been observed that patients who are considered overweight can also be suffering from anorexia, however, the likelihood that they will receive a proper diagnosis is low due to cultural unawareness of this issue in non-Westernized regions. In properly diagnosing anorexia nervosa, doctors and psychologists examine the following criteria:

1) Limiting caloric intake on an extreme scale in terms of age, gender, developmental path and physical health by avoiding food that will lead to weight gain.

2) Fear of being overweight regardless of the patient’s physique (whether thin or overweight)

3) Ignoring the risks of abnormally low body weight.

Symptoms of anorexia nervosa

Abdominal cramps and other non-specific, gastrointestinal disorders (constipation, acid reflux, et cetera).

Abnormal blood test results (anemia, low functioning thyroid and low hormones, potassium deficiency, low number of red and white blood cells and low heart rate).

Dizziness and fainting.

Feeling cold all the time.

Sleep disorders.

Delayed wound healing.

Getting sick often.

Bulimia nervosa

Cases of consuming abnormally large portions of food after periods of extreme hunger and promptly disposing of the food either deliberately or out of fear of gaining weight are classified as bulimia nervosa. Many athletes, vegetarians and adolescents fall ill because they do not consume the proper amount of nutrients due to a fear of becoming overweight. The majority of bulimic patients exhibit symptoms that include vomiting or expelling the food they eat to compensate for either overeating or consuming “too many” calories. Bulimia nervosa patients can also be diagnosed with drug addictions, depression and anxiety disorders.

The required criteria for a bulimia nervosa diagnosis are as follows

1) Binge-eating

2) Losing control while eating or being unable to stop eating

3) Self-induced vomiting

Symptoms of Bulimia nervosa

Abdominal cramps

Gastrointestinal disorders (constipation, acid reflux, et cetera)

Dizziness and fainting

Muscle weakness

Pale skin

Cold hands, red spots on skin and swollen hands and feet (edema)

Yellowing of teeth

Hair loss

Atypical eating disorder

Atypical eating disorders are associated with obsessive or compulsive thoughts or behaviors about losing weight. The most distinctive symptom of this disease is the excessive craving for food and unhealthy methods for burning calories or “ridding” the body of the food in the aftermath of consuming a meal. Atypical eating disorders are also known as serious eating disorders. With a possibility of resulting in depression and psychological breakdowns, it is a curable disease in today’s world.

The criteria for atypical eating disorders are as follows

1) Binge-eating: Bouts of extreme consumption occur in two ways. First, the patient either eats more than expected or eats immediately after a meal time or at sporadic intervals.

2) The feeling of loss of control while eating or feeling the urge to control the amount of food that is consumed while being unable to limit oneself.

3) Excessive eating on a weekly basis with extreme measures taken in the aftermath to either rid the body of calories or compensate for the intake of calories.

Symptoms of atypical eating disorders

Throwing out or consuming large amounts of food in a short time

Disturbing others with their behaviors while eating

Fear of eating in front of others

Stealing food or keeping food in bags

Skipping meal times or eating in extremely small portions

Going on repetitious diets

Obvious fluctuations in body weight

Abdominal cramps

Gastrointestinal disorders (constipation, acid reflux, et cetera)

Excessive chewing

Acute depression, constant fatigue and feeling of guilt

A person suffering from an eating disorder is generally unable to face all symptoms at the same time and these symptoms may change on a case-by-case basis. Socio-cultural features, environmental and genetic factors play an important role in treating eating disorders. Here are the other factors that can contribute to the development of an eating disorder:


Breakdown of marriage, friendships or other relationships can cause distortions in thought processes and result in mental health issues. Studies show that changes in mental health may affect eating habits and lead to irregular eating.

Sudden Changes

Changing your work environment, moving to a new place or participating in a new activity group are among the factors that affect our eating habits. Such changes that are faced in daily life may lead to anxiety.

Illness or hospitalization: Being diagnosed with an illness can increase one’s risk of developing an eating disorder. For example, patients who are diagnosed with diabetes may be more likely to develop an eating disorder than healthy patients.

Premorbid symptoms of eating disorders

Eat only when you are hungry

Stop eating the moment you realize you are full. Consume foods as part of a healthy diet and try not to categorize what you eat as either “good” or “bad.” Try to focus on eating a wide variety of fruits, vegetables and even cereals. For snacks, try alternatives like raisins or cheese, cookies, carrots or celery with peanut butter.

Avoid dieting: Studies show that unregulated dietary programs cause weight gain and do not help in losing weight. Consume various fruits and exercise regularly instead of going on a diet. Keep in mind that “being slimmer” is not directly related to being healthy or happy.

Things to consider

Doing exercise and being active will help you live a healthier life. Try to choose a sport that you enjoy such as swimming, basketball or football, or even dance or karate. Participate in various hobbies such as drawing, reading, listening to music or others. Spend time engaging in your favorite activities. When people are healthy and in good physical condition, they believe that those who are overweight are in bad condition, sick or out of control. This is not true. Try to get to know people and find the answers on your own. Encourage your loved ones to exercise regularly and stay active.

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Protect your heart at all costs: How to have a healthy heart



Protect your heart at all costs: How to have a healthy heart

Studies show that heart attacks are one of the main diseases leading to death for both men and women. In its simplest definition, a heart attack can be explained as plaques formed in the blood vessels for various reasons preventing blood and oxygen from reaching the heart and thus stopping the system. Due to the vital importance of cardiovascular diseases, whose reasons have been investigated numerous times, it is important to know the most important prevention measures and adapt them to our lives in a timely manner. Protect your heart at all costs: How to have a healthy heart.

Sleep 7-8 hours every day

Research points out that regular and adequate sleep is one of the most important steps to protect heart health. A study that included people who sleep less than six hours a day and others who sleep between seven to eight hours revealed the relationship between adequate sleep and heart attacks. Accordingly, those who sleep less than six hours a day are twice as much at risk than those who sleep seven to eight hours a day.

Sleep helps regulate the level of insulin in the blood. When you do not sleep well enough, your cells become resistant to insulin, which causes your blood sugar to rise, weight gain, and you can develop long-term cardiovascular diseases. Regular and adequate sleep, which we do not pay enough attention to, is important enough to cause long-term cardiovascular diseases.

Waist circumference

Your weight is an important clue to your health. The increasing rate of obesity in recent years has led scientists to examine health problems associated with obesity. According to studies, being overweight invites many vital diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. Some of the recent studies stress that your waist circumference is as important as your height-to-weight ratio. The likelihood of developing cardiovascular diseases increases in direct proportion to your waist circumference. According to scientists, a woman’s waist circumference of over 89 centimeters (35 inches) and a man’s waist circumference of over 102 centimeters increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

According to scientifically proven data, losing 5-10 percent of your total weight is enough to significantly reduce your chances of developing cardiovascular disease.

Exercise regularly

Regular exercise is a miracle-like wish for those who are lost in a busy working tempo and city life. However, we must not forget that health is acquired through discipline. Studies have shown that doing aerobics three days a week for 30 to 60 minutes regulates cholesterol levels, controls high blood pressure and reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. If you follow a healthy diet program along with regular exercise, you can reach these results much more effectively and quickly.


Laughing is the best medicine ever discovered. Studies have shown that laughter is extremely beneficial for vascular health. When you laugh, a serious decrease in the level of cortisol, known as the stress hormone, occurs. Decrease in stress and cortisol levels regulates blood pressure, strengthens our immune system and makes us feel happier. Scientists studying the effects of human psychology on diseases state that stress increases the risk of heart attacks.

Take aspirin

Plaque emerging in the blood vessels for various reasons prevents blood flow, leading to a heart attack. Aspirin naturally distributes blood clots. If you suspect someone is having a heart attack near you, one of the first things you should do is to make them chew aspirin (not swallow). Thanks to this intervention, the clot that is causing congestion in the blood vessels will dissipate in a short time.

Learn about your genetic history

Your chances of getting cardiovascular disease are closely related to your genetic heritage. In particular, if there is history of cardiovascular disease among your close relatives get regular checkups. Early diagnosis is of vital importance in cardiovascular diseases as in many other diseases.

Beware if you snore

Studies show that snoring is an important sign of heart disease. If you are snoring, you may need to contact a specialist. Being overweight causes various diseases in a linked manner. One of them is sleep apnea that stops you from breathing during sleep. Studies have revealed that sleep apnea significantly increases the risk of heart attack.

Cut down on salt intake

Salt’s harms have long been discussed. In particular, the claim that cardiovascular disease is closely related to high salt intake is a subject everyone is aware of. According to studies, cutting down on your daily salt intake even by a single teaspoon is enough to reduce the pressure on your heart.

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Psoriasis: Symptoms and Treatments



Psoriasis: Symptoms and Treatments

Psoriasis, which is mostly chronic, is a common dermatological disease with different appearances in different people. The disease is not an infectious one and it can occur in people of all ages, even if it is generally seen in people 15 to 30 years old. Although the reason for its emergence is not completely known, it is thought that it occurs as a result of an interaction of the immune system, genetics and environmental factors. Psoriasis: Symptoms and Treatments

A frequently asked question is, “How do you understand whether a skin rash is actually psoriasis or not?” This article examines the description of psoriasis, its types and treatment alternatives.

The disease takes its name from some of the most common symptoms which are white, bright and dry dandruff on a red skin eruption. It can appear with the hardening of the soles of the feet and palms, and cracks in the skin. It can occur with a rash-like appearance in the folding parts of the body, such as the armpits or belly button. In patients with psoriasis, small pits on nails, yellow-red stains like oil drops, hollow and thickening nails, bleeding under nails and disorder on the surface of nails can be observed. The disease can occur on the skin with hair, knees and elbows, sacrum and hips. Sometimes, it can be mistaken for eczema or allergic skin diseases.

Types and symptoms

Plaque psoriasis: Plaque psoriasis, the most common one, is red lesions covered by blotchy, inflammatory, white and nacred flakes. These plaques, which can be itchy and painful, can be seen anywhere in the body. However, the most common areas are the elbows, knees, waist and scalp. Eighty percent of patients with psoriasis have this type.

Guttate Psoriasis: Guttate psoriasis is the second most common disease after plaque psoriasis and mostly appears in childhood or young adulthood. Its frequency among all psoriasis types is 10 percent. It is seen on the skin of the chest, arms, legs and other parts of the body as small, red, separate spots. These spots are generally not as thick as plaque lesions.

Pustular psoriasis: Pustular is a rare type of psoriasis seen mostly in adults. It is usually observed on a small area on the hands and feet as white blisters filled with non-inflammatory liquid but it can spread to other areas.

Inverse Psoriasis: This is seen on the armpits, groin, inframammary fold, backs of the knees, sexual organs and other skinfolds on the hips. This type appears as nacred, smooth, bright and red inflammatory lesions.

Erythrodermic Psoriasis: This is an inflammatory type of psoriasis which is seen frequently. This disease is the most severe as it covers a great part of the body, more than 75 percent, with itching and redness on the skin and painful, exanthematous flaking.

Psoriatic arthritis: Along with typical psoriasis symptoms on the skin, there can be rheumatic problems. Swelling, pain, redness and mobility restriction can be seen among its symptoms that affect the joints. In many patients, effects such as heel spur, elbow pain, waist and back pain, can also be observed. In some cases, psoriasis negatively affects the fingernails and toenails. Nails generally thicken and the disease causes some effects such as dents on the nails and nail separation from their bed.

As psoriasis can be mistaken for other skin diseases, consulting your doctor can help with getting a proper diagnosis and the best treatment plan for you.

Treating psoriasis

The treatment of psoriasis should be planned, considering the general health, age and lifestyle of the patient and the type of psoriasis. The first thing that should be done while struggling against the illness is to prefer soaps that do not dry the skin, and moisturizing creams and lotions should be applied in order to clear up the dryness and to stop the flaking. The itch should be taken under control in this way as well.

Psoriasis is treated with various methods, such as steroid medicines, light therapy and edible medicine.

Topical medicines that are among the treatment methods that are applied to the skin directly, i.e., creams and sprays. Some of them contain a steroid, some have an analog of vitamin D, some have both a steroid and vitamin D and some contain retinoid.

More naturally, honey is applied to the skin and is accepted as a treatment option.

If topical medicines don’t provide adequate relief, your dermatologist can prescribe oral medicines that you take two times a week or a day. One of the recommended medicines that is generally prescribed is Apremilast. For some people, Acitretin, which is a derivative of vitamin A, is also recommended as an alternative, but you should inform your doctor about any medicine, like vitamins, food supplements and et cetera, which you use. You should also let him/her know about any allergies, health problems that you have or had, like pregnancy and surgery, before using this medicine.

If you use another medicine, the effects of Acitretin can change. This situation can both increase side effect risks and also prevent the medicine from working the way it should. Acitretin cannot be taken with some chemotherapy medicines, like Methotrexate and Tetracyclines. As a result, serious side effects can be observed. The treatment can be practiced by natural (solar) rays and artificial UV rays. In this practice, treatment can be done together with other medicines.

UVB phototherapy: UVB phototherapy can increase the symptoms of light and moderate psoriasis while it can treat spots, common psoriasis and problems that are resistant against the topical treatments. Its side effects can be itching, redness and skin dehydration.

Psoralen plus UVA: UVA rays can penetrate into deeper regions than UVB rays. Its short-term side effects are nausea, headache, burning and itching while long-term effects can be dry skin, increased sun sensitivity and skin cancer risk.

Atomic laser: This is used for light and moderate illnesses and applied to only the problematic skin area.

Injections: You can bid farewell to psoriasis with biological treatment – the success rate of which is between 80 and 90 percent – which is a much safer alternative that has fewer side effects. Injections are given every other week or once every three months to treat the illness.

However, medicines are expensive so be sure to consult with your doctor before deciding on a treatment plan.

If you’re suffering from this disease, you should definitely see a dermatologist instead of thinking that there is no cure.

Triggering factors for psoriasis

Mechanic trauma, such as sunburn, bath-glove or wax, that cause skin injury

Smoking and alcohol

Vitamin D deficiency

Dry skin

Stress, emotional trauma

Strong painkillers, some heart and malaria medicines

Infection and hormonal changes like pregnancy and menopause

Irregular nutrition

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How to Protect Children From Diseases



How to Protect Children From Diseases

Schools are undoubtedly ideal teaching spaces for children’s education. However, schoolchildren face the risk of catching diseases in schools as there are many children using shared spaces. Especially during mid-seasons, the immune system tends to weaken, which makes schoolchildren vulnerable to various diseases. As I stated in my previous articles, diseases spread faster in indoor areas whereas the lack of personal hygiene is the root of many diseases. So, parents are required to pay more attention to children’s hygiene as crowded places play an active role in the spread of diseases. Showing care in personal hygiene is important for the health of your child and their schoolmates. You cannot prevent your child’s exposure to infections and germs in school, but you can reduce the child’s risk of catching diseases by teaching them personal hygiene habits. How to Protect Children From Diseases

Why hygiene matters?

After your child catches an illness, germs can spread quickly to the rest of your family. Diseases such as colds and enteric infections, which are frequently seen in children, can be transmitted to families. Therefore, helping your children understand the importance of hygiene will enable them and the rest of your family to stay healthy.

1. Make sure they acquire the habit of hand washing

Disinfecting your hands frequently is indispensable for personal hygiene. Especially in places with many shared spaces like schools, doorknobs, tables, desks, boards, chalks and toilets pose a serious infection risk. Consequently, washing hands is the most effective way to prevent infections that can be transmitted in school. At this point, you are responsible for teaching your children how often and how they should wash their hands. Start with telling them about shared spaces and items. And explain that they should wash their hands for an average of 20 seconds by rubbing their hands together and that they should wash their hands in the following cases:

After using the bathroom

Before eating

After playing outdoors

After touching a dirty item

After coughing, sneezing or touching their noses

After petting animals

If their hands look dirty

2. Don’t skip breakfast, make sure they eat healthy

Breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Keep in mind that by letting your children sleep 5 minutes more, you cause them to skip breakfast. The variety in a child’s diet must be ensured as children grow in height; thus, they must often consume starchy carbs and fiber-rich foods and get sufficient levels of vitamins and minerals, while consuming fat and sugar must be limited. Schoolchildren are in a process of slow yet constant growth. To grow up healthily, they must consume the foods they need. Do not fret over what I write; you do not need to make a special diet plan for these needs. It is enough to make sure that your child eats six meals a day, three main meals and three side meals and cook the meals at home. A child grows in height the fastest between the ages of 7 and 14. This age group needs more calcium compared to the others. So, foods like milk, yoghurt, cheese and ayran must be included in their daily diet.

3. Cafeterias and canteens are important

I am sure you have other criteria you prioritize while choosing a school for your child, but you must also pay heed to the meal alternatives provided in schools for your child’s success. In most private schools, a fixed menu is served. In these cases, you must certainly check up on where the meals come from and in which conditions they are prepared. The situation is more dangerous in schools that do not serve meals. If your child is obliged to eat in the school canteen, which only has fast-food menus, you have to prepare a lunch box for them. Do not forget that children do what they see rather than what they hear.

4. Encourage drinking more water

Teach your child that he/she should not wait to get thirsty to drink water. It is no exaggeration to say that water is the most vital component of the human body and ecological balance. I am sure you have already heard that 3/4 of the human body consists of water. The human body undergoes dehydration during the day to exercise vital functions. The body needs 2-6 liters of water on a daily basis to function properly. Also, water protects the immune system against diseases.

5. Follow your child’s vaccination chart

Schoolchildren are generally exposed to infections and flu viruses that could cause diarrhea. Such infections can spread quickly if your child touches dirty surfaces. Also, your child’s contact with other children might transmit the infection to others. Pay attention that infection is not transferred through touching. Sneezing and coughing can also transmit infections.

As of the first month your child is born, a vaccination chart is formed against possible infections. Following the Hepatitis A vaccination during the first month after the birth, the child must get other vaccinations, including measles, chickenpox, diphtheria and tetanus. Other vaccinations are made during the first and eighth years in elementary school. Most of these vaccines do not provide life-long protection. Consequently, additional vaccine doses are needed at certain time periods. The vaccinations for your child must be completed before starting school. Do not forget that your school-age child can infect your baby. Also, children having active infections should not go to school until fully recovering since they can transmit infections to others.

6. Make a menu according to allergic diseases

Allergic diseases can also cause a disruption in education. Allergic diseases can affect both adults and children. Therefore, before your child starts school, you should take her/him to a doctor’s office and get information about his/her allergies. Also, if the school is away from your house, take a look at the hospitals in the vicinity of the school in case of possible allergic reactions.

If your child is allergic to certain foods, you can prepare a menu before leaving home. This menu should include snacks, fruits and other foods that the child is not allergic to. And make sure that the child’s medications are with her/him in case of possible allergic reactions.

7. Pay attention to hand and foot hygiene

Nails are a breeding ground for bacteria. Germs living under children’s nails can easily infect their eyes, noses or mouths. Therefore, their nails must be clipped once a week, and hands must be disinfected thoroughly after clipping the nails. Foot hygiene is also important for schoolchildren. Foot perspiration can cause fungal infections. To allow their feet to breathe, children must wear cotton socks instead of synthetic ones and wear leather or canvas shoes.

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